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Case Study of the raw diets for cats and dogs
This case study was done by
Please contact Natures Variety if you have any questions regarding any information that is associated with this case study.
Case Study #09-01
Dates of Study: 5/23/09 – 10/23/09
Breed: German Shepherd Dog
Age: 10 months (DOB 8/08)
Gender: Female, spayed
In February of 2009, Josie presented to her veterinarian with a low body condition score (less than 3 on a 1-9 point scale) and soft stools/chronic diarrhea (score of 2 or less; stools were scores based on a whole number scale between 1 and 5 with 1 being nearly liquid and 5 being hard and firm). She was not gaining weight; ribs and hips prominent. Her coat was in fair to good condition, though not glossy.
Initial blood work-up on 2/28/09 indicated a low serum B12 combined with high serum folate, suggesting that Josie had a small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) possibly due to some form of pancreatic dysfunction. It is not uncommon for dogs with pancreatic dysfunction to have a secondary SIBO due to the low or absent pancreatic secretions in the upper small intestine. However, her fasting Trypsin-Like Immunoreactivity test (cTLI) showed a numerically low but normal value of 6.8 ug/L (range 5.7 – 45.2 ug/L), effectively ruling out Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency (EPI).
Differential diagnosis suggested Josie most likely suffered from either primary SIBO (a form of antibiotic responsive diarrhea or ARD) or Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), both common diseases of German Shepherds, as opposed to pancreatic dysfunction such as EPI. Bacterial overgrowth will not only damage the intestinal mucosa leading to increased intestinal permeability (i.e. leaky gut syndrome) and nutrient malabsorption, but will also produce toxins, bind cobalamin and synthesize folate.
Beginning on 4/1/09, Josie was treated with weekly B12 injections (0.8cc) and twice daily doses of tylosin (10-20 mg/kg) to control the bacterial overgrowth. Presuming that Josie perhaps had IBD as opposed to SIBO/ARD, she was also switched to a new diet of novel proteins – daily intake of ~240 kcals (8-9 oz) of Hill’s Prescription Diet® d/d® Duck Formula canned food mixed with ~1350 kcals (4-5 dry cups) of Royal Canin Veterinary Diet® Duck and Potato Formula™ kibble. She was fed occasional Hill’s Prescription Diet® Hypoallergenic Treats, supplemented daily with enzymes (ProZyme®) and given an occasional 1 gram packet of Purina Veterinary Diets® FortiFlora™. Total daily caloric intake based on food amounts reported by owner was ~1550-1700 kcals.
After 6 weeks (5/8/09) on twice daily tylosin and weekly B12 injections, Josie’s stools were improving, though they were still soft (score of 2-3 on a 5 point scale). She was still not gaining weight (BCS still less than 3). The change to a novel protein kibble and canned diet did not appear to be working, evidence that Josie likely did not have IBD. It was decided to stop antibiotic treatment and reduce B12 injections to bi-weekly to determine if she indeed had SIBO.
Two weeks after stopping the tylosin (5/21/09), Josie’s stools reverted back to a score of 1-2, triggering the owner to bring Josie back to the clinic. Josie likely suffered from ARD based on the fact that after stopping tylosin treatment, stools did not improve but actually worsened. The attending veterinarian decided to enroll Josie into the Nature’s Variety® (NV) Raw Diet Feeding Case Study, hoping that a nutritional approach would alleviate her chronic loose stools and sub-optimal weight gain. Josie was placed on a raw diet for 153 days (about 5 months beginning on 5/23/09).
Josie was transitioned gradually over the course of four weeks to a NV raw diet, starting with about 5-10 oz of Nature’s Variety® Raw Frozen Chicken Formula. Eventually she was consuming about 25 oz of raw diet once successfully transitioning to 100% raw (~1625 kcals/day). Since Josie was perceived to be a finicky eater and desperately needed to gain weight, rotation feeding within the raw frozen line was recommended. Rotation of protein sources is a feeding philosophy advocated by Nature’s Variety®. Feeding a variety of protein sources and even food forms is thought to reduce the development of food-related intolerances and allergies, prevent boredom, and improve interest at meal time.
It became apparent to the owner that Josie preferred to eat the Beef Formula and Venison Formula and was offered those proteins more often than others. Treats comprised of NV Freeze Dried (FD), Pizzles, and Raw Frozen Bones. She continued with enzyme supplementation and occasional probiotic doses. Her owner kept a daily log of raw food intake, protein source, supplements, interest in food, and stool score based on a 1-5 point scale.
After fully transitioning to raw (6/21/09), Josie’s appetite increased and she appeared to be interested in food once more (though at times she was finicky about which flavor she wanted to eat). Her daily food intake was on average 25 oz per day comprised of 100% raw diet with FD and raw bones as treats on occasion. Her estimated daily caloric intake was about ~1625 kcals.
During the 30 day transition phase, her stool improved from a score of 2 to a score of 3, increasing in firmness over time until after just 60 days it was a well-formed, normal stool (score of 4). Stool volume was noted as being much less also (6/17/09).
After 153 days (10/23/09), the owner noted that stool volume decreased and more importantly, Josie’s chronic diarrhea had ceased such that her stool consistency improved 100% (score of 4). Josie also gained weight – her ribs and hips were no longer prominent (BCS of 4).
During the follow-up exam on day 153, the end of the case study period, the veterinarian noted that Josie’s coat had begun to shed in a normal manner. Her weight increased approximately 16.6% over her initial pre-raw feeding exam weight (total gain of 9 lbs). Josie weighed 63 lbs, closer to the ideal weight of a mature German Shepherd dog of 77-84 lbs.
This case study documents the successful holistic treatment of an EPI-like condition concomitant with suspected bacterial overgrowth (SIBO/ARD) and nutrient malabsorption using simple dietary intervention without resorting to pharmaceutical modalities. After 153 days of feeding NV Raw Frozen Diet, the underweight diarrheic patient was able to gain weight and pass normal stools. Despite being a finicky eater, the veterinarian commented that feeding a raw diet was a highly successful treatment option for treating a suspected case of SIBO/ARD.
The data shows that chronic disease such as SIBO/ARD commonly treated with long-term antibiotic administration can be managed successfully using diet alone. When a complete and balanced raw diet based on the type of foods likely consumed by wild, ancestral canines (raw meat, bones, organs, and whole fruits and vegetables) is fed to our modern pets, it is an effective and viable treatment modality for certain conditions when compared to conventional therapies. Further, this study suggests that when dogs are fed foods complementary to the ancestral origins of their digestive physiology, the body more effectively extracts the nutrients from the food, restoring intestinal balance and whole body health.
Interestingly, this study demonstrates that a raw diet, often misinterpreted as potentially harboring enteric pathogens, can successfully manage and alleviate the symptoms of a disease considered traditionally to be caused by the overgrowth of enteric pathogens. Raw diets are not the cause of bacterial overgrowth as if often presumed and may in fact represent a non-pharmaceutical treatment option. Clearly, raw diets are a less invasive and less expensive therapy when compared to the cost of purchasing antibiotics and all the potential drug related side-effects including stress to the patient and client.
This case study was completed by Natures Variety and not by Holistic Pet Cuisine and Market.
If you have any questions please contact
We sell a large selection of Natures Variety raw dog food in Boca Raton, Florida. Come in and let us help you find the proper diet for your cat or dog.
Come into Holistic Pet Cuisine and feel free to ask us questions that might concern you regarding raw dog and cat food. We offer the largest selection of healthy and nutritious raw diets for dogs and cats in Boca Raton, Florida and the Palm Beach Counties.
NOT CARRIED AT HOLISTIC PET CUISINE
From a Catswell statement issued 7/27/12 "In a communication that you will be receiving shortly, Catswell will be announcing that we are voluntarily recall Catswell Brand Vita Kitty Chicken Breast with Flaxseed and Vitamins from two affected lot codes...
SEW12CH032701/03c and SEW12CH032702/03c with a best before date of 9/10/13 and 9/11/13, respectively. We decided to enter into this voluntary and limited recall after testing revealed the presence of a limited amount of propylene glycol which has not been recognized as an approved ingredient for cats by the FDA. Although no illnesses have been reported from these lot codes or during the several years that this product has been on the market, we take the FDA guidelines very seriously which prompted this recent action.
In addition, the company is also proactively and voluntarily withdrawing from the market the following Catswell products due to the fact that they also may contain trace amounts of propylene glycol.
Item UPC Description
72 884244000565 Catswell Happy Hips Chicken Breast Treats with Glucosamine and Chondroitin
73 884244000572 Catswell Vitakitty Chicken Breast Treats with Flaxseed and Vitamins
74 884244000589 Catswell Breathies Chicken Breast Treats with Mint and Parsley
14181 884244141817 Catswell Shape Up Chicken Breast Treats with L-Carnitine
We are taking this further action in order fully comply with FDA requirements. They will return to the marketplace as soon as we can confirm that they are FDA compliant.
We ask that you take action for both the affected and non-affected lot codes of Catswell treats containing chicken breast by identifying products in stock, discontinuing their distribution, and holding them aside while we arrange for the product to be returned to the Company. You will receive a full reimbursement for the product in the form of a credit memo. We ask that you share this message with any retailers to whom you have sold the aforementioned product so that they might return the product to you which will then, in turn, be returned to the Company.
Blue Buffalo Recall October 8, 2010
As the result of a potential high level of Vitamin D, the Blue Buffalo Company voluntarily recalled their Wilderness Chicken, Basics Salmon, and Large Breed Adult Chicken dry dog foods on October 8, 2010. The recall was prompted by several dozen reports of dogs eating Blue Buffalo foods that showed signs of Vitamin D toxicity, which subsided when the dogs were switched to a different food.
Testing and investigation did not show high amounts of Vitamin D in the foods, but did reveal a scheduling error at a manufacturing plant that may have affected the Blue Buffalo formulas. The company issued the voluntary recall as a precaution, citing a "zero tolerance" policy for ingredients that do not match their specifications. President Bill Bishop, in a letter to pet owners posted on the company website stated, "I think you’ll agree that our decision to withdraw these specific products is simply the right thing to do."
Signs of Excess Vitamin D Intake
Dogs that receive an excess amount of Vitamin D may develop hypervitaminosis, which leads to abnormally high serum calcium levels and bone loss. Early symptoms include lethargy, excess water consumption, and excess urination. Dogs that exhibit these signs should see a veterinarian. If left untreated, Vitamin D toxicosis may result in kidney stone or calcification of the kidneys, heart, or other organs.
The recalled Blue Buffalo dog foods are:
Blue Buffalo foods are sold at PetCo, PetsMart, Pet Supplies Plus, Tractor Supply Company, and many independent pet food retailers in the Metro Detroit area. The affected products will be removed from retailers' shelves; dog owners who have any of the products at home should stop feeding them immediately. Customers can contact Blue Buffalo at 1-877-523-9114 to arrange for a return of the product and reimbursement.
Come visit our market and we will find you an alternative to your particular pet food.
Holistic Pet Cuisine does not carry the
Merrick Pet Care of Amarillo, Texas, issued the voluntary recall of Jr. Texas Taffy pet treats (UPC 02280827077, all lots up to and including No. 10364) because the could be contaminated with Salmonella. The company says it is using "an abundance of caution" in recalling the treats and that no animals have been reported sick.
The treats were shipped to distributors and retailers across the country. Consumers who have purchased the affected products can return the unused portions to the place of purchase for a full refund, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Questions can be directed to Merrick at 1-800-664-7387.
Additionally, FDA has announced that Manna Pro Products is recalling a single lot of Family Farm Complete Horse 10 feed (UPC 0 95668 90151 6), packaged in 40-pound bags. The feed may contain monensin sodium (Rumensin), which is a medication approved for use in some livestock and poultry, but can be fatal to horses if fed at high levels, FDA says.
Lot number 1006 is the only lot affected by the recall, which affects feed distributed from Jan. 11-21, 2011 to retailers in California, Nevada and Oregon. Testing by the company uncovered the problem with the feed, and retailers are pulling the affected product from their shelves. No illnesses have been reported, according to FDA.
Diamond Pet Foods:
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE – April 06, 2012
Diamond Pet Foods is voluntarily recalling Diamond Naturals Lamb Meal & Rice. This is being done as a precautionary measure, as the product has the potential to be contaminated with salmonella. No illnesses have been reported and no other Diamond manufactured products are affected.
Individuals handling dry pet food can become infected with salmonella, especially if they have not thoroughly washed their hands after having contact with surfaces exposed to this product. Healthy people infected with salmonella should monitor themselves for some or all of the following symptoms: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or bloody diarrhea, abdominal cramping and fever. Rarely, salmonella can result in more serious ailments including arterial infections, endocarditis, arthritis, muscle pain, eye irritation and urinary tract symptoms. Consumers exhibiting these signs after having contact with this product should contact their healthcare providers.
Pets with salmonella infections may have decreased appetite, fever and abdominal pain. If left untreated, pets may be lethargic and have diarrhea or bloody diarrhea, fever and vomiting. Infected but otherwise healthy pets can be carriers and infect other animals or humans. If your pet has consumed the recalled product and has these symptoms, please contact your veterinarian.
The product, Diamond Naturals Lamb Meal & Rice, was distributed to customers located in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina and Virginia, who may have further distributed the product to other states, through pet food channels.
Product Name Bag Size Production Code & “Best Before” Code
Diamond Naturals Lamb & Rice 6lb DLR0101D3XALW Best Before 04 Jan 2013
Diamond Naturals Lamb & Rice 20lb DLR0101C31XAG Best Before 03 Jan 2013
Diamond Naturals Lamb & Rice 40lb DLR0101C31XMF Best Before 03 Jan 2013
Diamond Naturals Lamb & Rice 40lb DLR0101C31XAG Best Before 03 Jan 2013
Diamond Naturals Lamb & Rice 40lb DLR0101D32XMS Best Before 04 Jan 2013
Consumers who have purchased the Diamond Naturals Lamb & Rice with the specific production and “Best Before” codes should discontinue feeding the product and discard it.
At Diamond Pet Foods, the safety of our products is our top priority. We apologize for any inconvenience this recall may have caused. For further information or to obtain a product refund please call us at 800-442-0402 or visit www.diamondpet.com.
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